What Materials are Used for Stone Masonry?
Stone masonry uses hard and tough stones, which do not have any cracks, holes, or cavities in them.
Mortar is the binding material used in stone masonry. Lime and cement combined with water and sand help form the masonry mortar. Factors such as the color of the stone, the strength needed, and loads to be placed on the structure affect overall mortar selection.
Types of Stone Masonry
In this kind of stone masonry, the stones used can be undressed or just roughly dressed. Rubble masonry does not have uniform thickness and its strength depends on various factors such as the use of long stones, quality of mortar used, and a good filling of mortar between joints and stone spaces.
Types of Rubble Masonry
Rubble masonry can further be classified into:
- Coursed Rubble Masonry
In this type of stone masonry construction, stones in a certain course will have the same height. Therefore, all stones used will have distinctly sized. This method of stone masonry is mostly used in constructing residential buildings, public buildings, and ordinary bridges.
- Un-Coursed Rubble Masonry
Un-coursed rubble masonry is probably the cheapest and roughest masonry construction. Stones used here will be of distinct sizes and shapes. Stones are directly sourced from the quarry and used the way they are. Courses are not paid attention to so much in this kind of construction. Larger stones are laid first then smaller ones later.
- Dry Rubble Masonry
Dry rubble is a type of stone masonry that is done without using mortar. The small spaces are filled with small pieces of stone. This kind of stone masonry is mainly used for pitching canal slopes or earthen dams.
- Polygonal Masonry
Just as the name suggests, polygonal masonry comprises stones shaped just like polygons. The stones are properly arranged to avoid vertical joints. It is also good to note that stone chips are used to support the stones.
- Flint Masonry
Flint masonry comes into play in places that has a lot of flints. Flints are usually irregularly shaped nodules of silica and although they are quite hard, they can be quite brittle. Flints have a thickness that varies from 7 to 15cm and the length ranges from 15 to 30cm.
Ashlar is a type of stone masonry that is done using accurately dressed stones, which have a uniform and fine joints. The joints have a thickness of about 3mm, which is made in different patterns. Stone blocks must have a size proportional to the thickness of the walls.
Types of Ashlar Masonry
- Ashlar Fine Masonry
In this type of masonry, every stone is cut into a uniform size, which is almost rectangular. This shape offers the right vertical and horizontal joints with adjacent stones. Despite being a good option, ashlar fine masonry can be quite expensive.
- Ashlar Rough Masonry
Ashlar rough masonry is quite similar to ashlar fine masonry. The only difference is that this type of stone masonry has finely chisel-dressed stones. The stones have a rough face, which is made using a variety of tools.
- Rock and Quarry Faced
This type of stone masonry has a 25mm strip, which is made using a chisel placed around every stone. The other part of the face is left to be just as it came.
- Ashlar Block in Course Masonry
This is a combination of both ashlar and rubble masonry. Stones used for this masonry can be rough tooled or hammer dressed.
- Ashlar Chamfered Masonry
For this type of stone masonry, a strip is provided but the sides are beveled or chamfered at 45 degrees using a chisel at a depth of 25mm.
Stone masonry uses stones and mortar for building. When you make the decision to go with this type of construction, you need to have a good idea of the different stones that you can use. Lucky for you, this article has provided you with these options. You should hence be properly informed.